Conceptual articles since 2005

This work provides the conceptual foundation needed to conduct studies of sustainable economies that combine empirical data with scenario analysis (see empirical articles).  The centerpiece of this body of work is a fully generalized theory of comparative advantage, the World Trade Model (WTM), which I introduced in 2005.

The classical theory of comparative advantage considers two countries that produce two goods, and derives a mutually beneficial balance of production in the presence of bilateral trade.  The World Trade Model expands the theory to any number of regions, goods, and factors.

See Publications page for a complete list.


A World Trade Model based on Comparative Advantage with m Regions, n Goods, and k Factors

Introduction of the World Trade Model.

Duchin, F., 2005. Economic Systems Research, 17(2): 141-162.
Publisher link. Author’s version.


A World Trade Model with Bilateral Trade Based on Comparative Advantage

An extension of the World Trade Model that introduces a matrix of the distances between pairs of regions and creates sectors providing international transport services.  This makes it possible to endogenously determine bilateral trade flows.

Strømman, A. and F. Duchin, 2006. Economic Systems Research, 18(3): 281-297.
Publisher link. Author’s version.


Sustainable Consumption of Food

An approach to analyzing the impacts of alternative human diets, which has since been put to use in several empirical studies.

Duchin, F., 2005.  Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(1-2): 99-114.
Publisher linkAuthor’s version.


Physical and Monetary Input-Output Analysis: What Makes the Difference?

Addresses the move from money values only to mixed units in input-output databases.

Weisz, H. and F. Duchin. 2006. Ecological Economics, 57(3): 534-541.
Publisher linkAuthor’s version.


Embodied Resource Flows and Product Flows: Combining the Absorbing Markov Chain with the Input-Output Model

Combines the Absorbing Markov Chain, widely used in many applied areas, with an input-output model of an economy to quantify the embodied resources and intermediate products along supply chains.

Duchin, F. and S. H. Levine, 2010.  Journal of Industrial Ecology, 14(4): 586-597.
Publisher link.


Embodied Resource Flows in the Global Economy

Incorporates the framework developed in the previous paper into the WTM.

Duchin, F. and S. Levine, 2013. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 17(1): 65-78.
Publisher link.


Rents in the Era of Resource Scarcity: Global Payment Flows under Alternative Scenarios

The price dual of the input-output model makes it possible to track associated payment flows to labor, capital, and owners of resources.

Duchin, F. and S. Levine, 2015. Journal of Economic Structures, 4(1).
Open access.


Sectors May Use Multiple Technologies Simultaneously: The Rectangular Choice-of-Technology Model with Binding Factor Constraints

The development of the Rectangular Choice-of-Technology (RCOT) model, so-called because it replaces the square matrices that are (mistakenly) taken to be a defining feature of input-output economics with rectangular matrices, where each sector is still represented by a single row but by as many columns as it has technological alternatives.

Duchin, F. and S. H. Levine, 2011. Economic Systems Research, 23(3): 281-302.
Publisher link.


The Rectangular Sector-by-Technology Model: Not Every Economy Produces Every Product and Some Products May Rely on Several Technologies Simultaneously

The development of the Rectangular Choice-of-Technology (RCOT) model, so-called because it replaces the square matrices that are (mistakenly) taken to be a defining feature of input-output economics, with rectangular matrices, where each sector is still represented by a single row but by as many columns as it has technological alternatives.

Duchin, F. and S. Levine, 2012. Journal of Economic Structures, 1(1): 11 pp.
Publisher link.


The Transformative Potential of Input–Output Economics for Addressing Critical Resource Challenges of the Twenty-First Century

Duchin, F., 2015, Chapter 8 in M. Baranzini, C. Rotondi, and R. Scazzieri, Editors, Scale Constraints, Resource Rents, and Structural Dynamics, Cambridge University Press.


Combining Multiregional Input-Output Analysis with a World Trade Model for Evaluating Scenarios for Sustainable Use of Global Resources, Part I Conceptual Framework

Duchin, F. and S.H. Levine, 2016, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 20(4): 775-782.


Bottom-Up and Top-Down: A Global Case-Study Framework Applied to Water Supply and Sanitation

Duchin, F. 2016, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 20(3): 387-395.


Choosing Among Alternative Technologies: Conditions for Assuring Structural and Scale Feasibility of a Database or Scenario

Duchin, F. and S. Levine, 2017, Economic Systems Research.


Resources for Sustainable Economic Development: A Framework for Evaluating Infrastructure System Alternatives

Duchin, F. 2017.  Special Issue of Sustainability on Natural Resources Economics.